Conclusions from deliverable [D3.5] (Van den Broeke, 2015) expressed the need to integrate the concept “life cycle” in the variability decision framework. The allocation of variability drivers and variability decisions to specific lifecycle phases facilitates transparent impact analyses. The concept “life cycle” is however not yet defined and numerous interpretations and variants exist.
During interviews with companies along VARIES project, it became apparent that certain variability drivers have a relatively steady impact on the product decisions while other variability drivers see significant changes in impact across the product lifecycle. Some variability drivers apparently occur mainly at the early lifecycle stages, where others appear only at the end. Likewise the impact of certain variability drivers is highest at early or later lifecycle phases.
The lifecycle stage a product is in, plays an important role during variability decisions and it would be beneficial to the variability decision taker to incorporate these lifecycle aspects (impact on revenue, product cost, performance, time to market, resources, …) in the analysis in order to make objective trade-offs and informed decisions.
In [D3.1] (Hirvonen, 2013) and [D3.2], Chapter 9 (Van den Broeke, 2014), four life cycle costing categories by Blanchard were introduced (see also Figure 5‑11):
- Research & Development
- Production & Construction
- Operation & Support
- Retirement & Disposal
Taking into account the above, a mapping of lifecyclestages with the Blanchard cost model will enable allocating cost aspects to these lifecycle stages, thus facilitating variability decision taking.
Table 5‑1: Mapping of Lifecycle stages and Blanchard cost model
|Proposed Lifecycle stage||Blanchard cost model|
|Ideation & Concept definition||(missing)|
|Product design, Development and Validation||Research & Development|
|Production||Production & Construction|
|Product use, Servicing & Maintenance||Operation & Support|
|End of life||Retirement & Disposal|
Table 5‑1 provides a proposed list of lifecycle stages relevant for the VARIES consortium and their mapping with the Blanchard cost categories. The ideation stage is not covered by Blanchard and should be treated separately.
This chapter proposed a generic lifecycle relevant to the VARIES consortium and mapped the Blanchard cost model on these lifecycle stages. The early stage of the lifecycle (i.e. Ideation) is however not covered by Blanchard and should be further detailed to include ideation-related cost categories.
This lifecycle model has been applied in several models and approaches in WP3.
|Biot, 2015||Biot, O., Bollen, M., Codenie, W., Hirvonen, H., Teppola, S., Van den Broeke, M., Vierimaa, M. (2015). Deliverable D3.6: Updated methods to capture product variability: drivers and variants.|
|Blanchard, 2010||Blanchard, B. S., & Fabrycky, W. J. (2010). Systems Engineering and Analysis. Prentice Hall.|
|Green, 1894||Green, D. I. (1894). Pain-Cost and Opportunity-Cost. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 8, No. 2 (Jan., 1894), 218-229.|
|Hirvonen, 2013||Hirvonen, H., Mäntysaari, M., Pesonen, K., Haapaniemi, A., Biot, O., González-Deleito, N., . . . Jaring, P. (2013). Deliverable D3.1: Modeling and evaluation of variants in the product portfolio and roadmap|
|deGroote, 2011||de Groote, X., & Yücesan, E. (2011). The impact of product variety on logistics performance. Proceedings of the 2011 Winter Simulation Conference (pp. 2245-2254). IEEE Conference Publications.|
|Pohl, 2005||Pohl, K., G. Böckle, and F. van der Linden. 2005. Software Product Line Engineering: Foundations, Principles, and Techniques. Springer.|
|Van den Broeke, 2014||Van den Broeke, M., Hirvonen, H., Biot, O., Bollen, M., González-Deleito, N., Vierimaa, M., & Ihme, T. (2014, 2 28). Deliverable D3.2: Methods to capture product variability: drivers and variants.|
|Van den Broeke, 2015||Van den Broeke, M., Vierimaa, M., Hirvonen, H., Bollen, M., Biot, O., & Teppola, S. (2015). D3.5 Identifying and shaping variability in the product portfolio.|
|VARIES-TA||ARTEMIS Call 2011, ARTEMIS-2011-1, 295397 VARIES: VARiability In safety-critical Embedded Systems. Technical Annex.|